Technology is the universal name for the application of science to meet the practical life requirements or to the efforts of the human being to control, shape and change the environment. The technological proposition created by the Greek words of art (art, craft) and logos (word, word) meant “speaking about arts” in ancient Greece. The word, which changes in meaning over time, has gained meaning that represents the whole and useful results obtained from scientific research and the means, methods and processes related to them.
Technique basically refers to methods of making results using tools and tools . The ability to make tools is the basic quality that distinguishes mankind from other living things. Because of this nature, human beings are a technology-producing entity from the very beginning, and the technology involves the whole evolution of historical humanity. (See also tool.)
Technology in the first civilizations. In the early periods of civilization history, the stone, which is the main material that people use to make tools, gave their name to these periods. In the Neolithic Age, where livestock and agriculture began, and settled in life, clay, brick and wood began to be used along with various stone species.
Artisans (especially metalworkers and glassware) and the first scientists (Sumerian, Egyptian and Mesopotamian astronomers) came to the planting of copper (especially bronze) with urbanization.
The period between 500-500 BC is the period of ancient Greek and Roman civilizations.
The development of sailing, regular irrigation methods, wine and prestige oil production, construction of large brick temples and obelisks constitute the most important technological developments of this period. . This period, symbolizing very important developments in terms of philosophy, religion, politics, law, poetry, theater, theoretical thought and abstract science (especially mathematics), is not the same in terms of technology. Among the most important technological developments of this period are iron processing and steel production techniques thought to originate from Anatolia. Arkhimedes, one of the greatest scholars of the past, has accomplished very important mechanical discoveries, such as screws, reels and levers, as well as the extraordinary weapons he has discovered and developed to protect Syrakusa, born and raised, from the Roman invasion.
The Alexandrian school was the pioneer of the passage of complex mechanisms that could be described as “machines” from simple mechanisms. Greek architecture is not of great importance in terms of technological aspect, despite the whole artistic splendor. Although the Romans were able to duplicate the Greek architectural style, they did reveal some important achievements in building technology. They built a durable cement that could harden under water and built amphitheaters, aqueducts, tunnels, bridges, ramparts, lighthouses, and a very wide and regular network of highways, taking full advantage of the architectural possibilities of arches, vaults and coves.
Technology in the New Age h2>
The millennium following the collapse of Western Rome in the 5th century AD is known as the medieval period. The history of technology in the Middle Ages can be summarized as the re-acquisition, retention and, to some extent, the alteration of the achievements of much older civilizations.
This accumulation of knowledge from Spain, Sicily and North Africa to Western Europe is a crucial element in China and the products of Indian civilizations.
In the nineteenth century, important techniques and products, which were not known yet, were developed in the west. These include silk workmanship, gunpowder, cast iron, paper, sailing ships of the type of lunar (*), kite, windmill and porcelain. The major innovations that symbolize the technological development of the western Mediterranean in the Middle Ages can be summarized as follows: The development of horse and paddle and the beginning of the use of horse as an important source of power in agriculture and war; the use of water appliances (*) and windmills ^) and the use of these devices in the grinding of grains, crushing oil, wood cutting, wool crushing, newly developed hoisting energy; coal extraction; the presence of gunpowder and gun; development of rope and barrel, cast iron and soap making techniques; construction of castles and chats; beginning of use of compass; Construction of the first mechanical clock in the 14th century; The invention of the printing press in the 15th century.
16. The emergence of national states from the beginning of the twentieth century, the scientific revolution led by the Reform and Renaissance in particular, gave this development a great boost.
Galilei was the pioneer of the scientific revolution caused by the Renaissance. R. from England, Otto Von Guericke from Germany and D. Papin from France), T. Newcomen’s vapor machine in 1712). The Newcomen machine, which has a very low efficiency due to its operation in atmospheric pressures, has symbolized a significant technological development with its use in pumping water from mines. The opening of the European countries to the Indian Ocean and the Yenidunya has led to the emergence of many new products and their associated manufacturing techniques.
Industrial Revolution h2>
The term Industrial Revolution refers to an economic transition period (1750-1900) in which the industrial and machine production dominate in the west. ). The most prominent characteristic of the Industrial Revolution is the change in energy technology. At the beginning of the period, the main sources of energy were arm power, animal, water and wind energy. James Watt in 1769. By adding a separate concentrator to the Newcomen machine, it was able to prevent the cylinder from heating up and cooling down in every forward and reverse movement of the piston; In the following years, he developed a new machine that turns a pump instead of just moving the pump up and down.
Michael Faraday revealed the relationship between electricity and magnetism (1831), resulting in the development of electric motor and dinamon. The development of internal combustion engines (gas and kerosene engine, diesel engine, petrol engine), motorcycle and automobile took place within 30 years between 1860-90. The iron-steel and cotton weaving industries formed the industrial branches of the greatest development in the 19th century.
By the time the technological progress has accelerated and the current dizzying speed has reached the 20th century 1945, and after 1945, it has become a pioneer of new developments in photography in 1827 and electric telegraph in 1837. it is possible to separate two turns. The beginning of the nuclear age of 1945, when the first atomic bomb was introduced into Hiroshima, can be regarded as the starting year of the computer age from another perspective.
The major technological developments of the 1900-45 period can be summarized as follows: In the field of energy, electricity is a major source of energy production development is not the issue.
The determination of vitamins in 1911, the discovery of penicillin in 1928 and the introduction of antibiotic production in 1943 are important developments in the field of health. A series of inventions (radioactivity, artificial radioactivity and nucleus division in 1938), which began with the presence of X-rays in 1895, opened the way to the nuclear age. In 1903, the aircraft that made its first flight, will be equipped with a gas turbine in the following years to become a jet plane, which would reach supersonic speeds in the 1960s. One of the most important developments in this period was the development of the 1901 radion and the 1907 electronic lamp (*). Thus, the first steps were taken in the field of electronics, which would be the most important component of modern technology;
The presence of a transistor in 1947 greatly influenced every aspect of the electron, but this effect was mostly observed on computers; the development of the integrated circuit in the following years has brought microprocessors to the state of the industry, scientific research and increasingly an integral part of everyday life. Automation) *), robots (*) and artificial intelligence (*) were the most important developments in this area.
These successes continued with the unmanned flights to planets and the development of the space shuttle in 1981. One of the most important (and controversial) developments in the 20th century is genetic engineering.)
Science and Technology h2>
Despite its dependence on scientific principles, a close relationship between technology and science it is a phenomenon. In ancient societies, science was in the hands of philosophers in the aristocratic structure, and it covered all fields of knowledge. However, technology, worker, craftsman and craftsman’s job. This was due to the fact that there was no relation between the theoretical knowledge of Aristotle or Ptolemy, and the relations between a philosopher, a jeweler, a barrel maker or a sepicin, and technological problems, as far as the class distinction was concerned. Science and technology have only begun to converge in the middle ages.
13. The great philosopher and knowledge of the century Roger Bacon elaborated on making gunpowder. engineered ships and flying machines. In the 16th century, Francis Bacon made advocacy of experimental science;
The fact that technologists are based on science can only be explained by the fact that 19th century scholars should be able to study the methods of craftsmen and artisans, and craftsmen should benefit from science.
The first great scientist with an important place in the industry was the German chemist Justus von Liebig (1803-73), known as the founder of organic chemistry and finding chemical fertilizer. Almost all of the inventors of the 19th century based their work on the findings of scientists. The invention of electric bulb Faraday and Henry to work; telephone Helmholtz; radio based on Maxwell and Hertz. Another development in Edison’s case is the institutionalization of the science-technology cooperation. Edison, who has tried thousands of materials each month for 14 months to find a texture that can be used as a filament in an electric light bulb, made these efforts in the world’s first research lab in Menlo Park, New Jersey. The establishment of this laboratory is the beginning of modern technology research. It is observed that the following developments are taking advantage of scientific knowledge in technology and the application of scientific principles in technological processes. Thus, disciplines such as system engineering (*) and navigation research (*) have emerged such as simulation (*) and mathematical modeling.
Technology and Society h2>
there are three special features in terms of the relations with the society.
The social need to technological development has been the driving force. This requirement may be addressed, for example, to a sharper blade, to a stronger lifting device, to a less dependent machine with arm power, to a motor that is more efficient than a newly discovered fuel, or to a new energy source. The military demands that arise in the form of the need for better weapons can also be addressed in this context. In modern western society, it is also necessary to add that the requirements are more often determined by advertisements.
Technological advances in social resources (capital, equipment and skilled workers) have great significance. None of the helicopter, submarine and aircraft designs in the notes of Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) could be realized; The same fact applies to the detailed computer designs of, for example, Charles Babbage (1792-1871).
Another condition of technological progress is that the social environment must be able to perceive and accept innovations in the social environment. In order to be able to make a technological development, it is necessary to have suitable tools (metal, plastic, ceramic, weaving etc.), appropriate methods and techniques and technical ability to apply them. is to take a positive attitude towards the innovations of the sovereign powers in society.
It can be seen as a positive attitude toward innovation and development, as seen in the English mid-century in the 19th century.
Technological development has brought many problems together today. Today’s society must make important decisions against these developments.
The main problems emerging from technological development can be summarized in four main chapters: Nuclear technology, which is the core of technological development, is the result of a great deal of responsibility. problems caused by population explosion, other social and environmental problems. The question of the control of nuclear technology is basically a political question. The basis of this problem lies in the various international structures of the world, each of which is organized in the form of a state.
The atomic bomb has seriously brought about the responsibility of the scientist for collecting. It is a generally accepted view that technology is only a tool, both for constructive purposes and destructive purposes.
There are two ways to solve this problem, with the help of modern technology. The first is the development and implementation of contraceptive methods. The possibilities of technology, some ethical values and tabular are opposed by this technology. This conflict must be resolved in order to achieve a certain level of equilibrium in the world. On the other hand, even the most optimistic estimates predict that with the birth control programs to be implemented, the rate of population growth will be only slightly reduced by the end of the 20th century. In this case, very intensive efforts are needed to increase world food production.
One of the most important problems faced by modern technology societies is the environmental problem. For centuries, mankind has been involved in activities that harm the environment. But nowadays, the fact that the population has increased so much, on the other hand, the level reached by the industrialist has transformed the environmental problem into a world-wide disorder. It is useful to emphasize that the main reason for causing confusion is not the technology itself but the way it is used and practiced by humans.