A steam machine is a machine that uses steam to generate mechanical energy using the energy it has. It mainly converts heat energy to mechanical energy. Because of the heat energy they carry, the molecules that bring them to the quadrangle are constantly moving, applying pressure to the wall of the cabin they are in. This is used mechanically as a propulsion source.
Piston travel is used in many industrial sites to achieve a crank-rod action in the water pump or piston rod connected to the piston of a water trough connected to the piston rod. Another form in which mechanical energy is derived from steam energy is the use of steam in steam turbines, which are the most advanced steam engines.
Steam makers have a major role in the development of industry. Because the power that makes the steam machine work is not tied to a specific place like the ones used up to that time.
In this view, it is provided that the water can be removed to high altitudes by taking advantage of vapor pressure. In 1698 he built a machine called the British steam pump Thomas Savery strong> which was used in the water pump.
Utilizing vapor pressure to move a piston in a cylinder, the French physicist Denis strong>, a finder for the steamy cook in 1679.
Papin strong>. With this principle, a suction trough was made by an advanced steamer, Thomas Newcomen, which pumps the water into the cylinder by connecting it to the piston moving in the cylinder, which is different from the steam pump of Savery. The Savery steam pump, which can be used for the same wheels as the Newcomen machine, does not have any moving pistons. The boiler for obtaining steam was an oval container for sucking and pressing the water and pipes connected to the suction and discharge side of the vessel. In addition, there were one-way lids in the pipeline to prevent water from escaping downward.
Then the steam valve is closed and the steam in the oval valve is condensed with water sent from another vessel; so the pressure at the cap fell below the atmospheric pressure. Netîcede sucked the water from the water pipe into the cabin, which was repressed by sending steam again.
The Newcomen machine, unlike the Savery pump, has a piston-cylinder system. The steam sent from the cylinder is cooled by means of water spraying, and the low pressure piston is allowed to descend. The water coming out of the square is thrown out with a pipe, and the piston is provided to go up again by sending steam again. A piston rod connected to the piston is used to pump the piston upward and downward by connecting it to the horizontal arm of a suction-pushing tumbler.
The most important development in revolving steam machines was made by a British named James Watt strong>. In this machine, which is provided with the action of sending steam to both sides of the piston, various lids are used which are operated depending on the turning motion by entering the steam on both sides of the piston in order.
In the case of this going-and-return movement, the crankshaft is moved by the piston rod and turned into a rotary motion. There is another arm called the connecting rod between the piston arm and the crank arm.
In the next 1803, Richard Trevithick found a sliding head system, and the joint of the piston and the biome was smooth. in the same way as the piston to go-and-go was determined. There are also systems where the piston arm is directly connected to the crank arm, ie, there is no pinch. At the point where the piston can go the most in both directions, the crankshaft and the crankshaft are on the same line. This point is called dead spots. To pass the crank from these dead spots, single-cylinder machines use the flywheel, called flywheel, and the casts of the rotating bodies with the crank.
There are many types of rotary moving steam machines that are used in various industrial areas, such as locomotives, ships, automobiles, and so on.
The highest efficiency is obtained by providing the greatest mechanical energy to be obtained from the hot boiler, the high pressure at the inlet and the low temperature at the outlet. For example, to use steam energy precisely, steam from a small high-pressure cylinder, stepped or compound steam machines operating with a low-pressure large cylinder, has three stages: low-medium-high pressure cylinders. Even four-stage machines with two medium pressure cylinders have been made, but not very well.
The three-stage machines are often used in marine vehicles. The Olympic ship, which carried passengers in the Atlantic Ocean until the 1930s, has three stages. The low-pressure cylinder is about 2.5 meters in diameter. The cylinders of the cascading machines can be side-by-side vertically, as well as horizontal or mutual workers. Another interesting type of steamer is the so-called steamer or steamer. Steam enters through the end of the cylinder, and as the piston passes through the center of the cylinder, it opens the holes in the middle of the cylinder, so that the steam is thrown out without any change in direction.
Subsequently, in the United States, Great Britain, Germany and Switzerland, very large steam engines were installed. They have a cylinder number of 5 and a power of 30,000 bhp. Steam used in steam machines is produced in various types of steam boilers. The steam of the steam turbines replacing the piston steam machines is also supplied from the steam boilers. Piston steam machines now leave their place to diesel engines, explosive engines and electric motors. But the steam turbines used in electricity generation in thermal power plants still maintain their validity as a modern steam engine. Share Information on Multiple Plants.