It is useful to look at the print shop’s history and printing systems to find out when the first printing house was found and who invented it. Before the invention of the paper, people wrote on the tablets, stones and trees made of mudbrick. But I had to rewrite it to replicate the writings. Along with the invention of paper, studies and information about the sciences such as physics, chemistry, medicine, pharmacy and mathematics have begun to be turned into books.

First Printing Systems h2>

Although these books were originally written by hand, over time they have been searched for duplication ways so that more people can read and use it. Various stamps and molds made of stone and wood were developed. Thus, the printing technique and the printing press came out. The printing press, which has been known and used since ancient times, was obtained by stamps and molds in cylindrical form on waxes or clay.

The bricks carved with wood and metal molds were also used. A.D. At the end of the 2nd century, classical Buddhist texts were printed in the printing room developed by the Chinese.

Thus, the same fonts and shapes could be duplicated in many ways, with the difficulties of writing or drawing individually.

Over time, the marble plates were replaced by wood blocks. The letters and figures on the wooden block were carved into reliefs. Wood block for printing was inked with brush. The paper was printed on the inked area and the letters and figures were transferred onto the paper. In this way China and Japan M.S.

Tipo printing technique h2>

In the eleventh century, Sheng strong>, a Chinese scholar, and glued and baked it individually. The specially prepared and cooked letters are arranged side by side on an iron plate. They smeared with resin, wax and paper. He then warmed the plate to light heat, allowing the letters to solidify. He inked on the plate covered with solid letters, pressed the paper over it, and multiplied as many copies as he wanted to print it. After the printing process was over, he reheated the plate and removed the letters one by one.

Thus the first example of typo printing technique was obtained.

The Turks, who are neighboring to the Chinese, also began to use the printing press. M.S.

Arab traders who go to Samarkand and other Central Asian cities in order to trade and spread Islam have begun to see and apply paper use and printing techniques. The Andalusian Emeviers, who passed through North Africa to Spain and founded the state, also used printing and printing techniques.

Printing in Europe h2>

In the fourteenth century the printing press in Europe began to be used. In the early days, more religious pictures were printed. At the beginning of the 15th century, small booklets of several pages began to be printed. In the years 1423-37, the letters were made by carving one by one from the tree. Later, the letters were printed on metal. First, a series of letter plates made of brass or bronze. Then, these molds were shot individually onto a soft metal matrix, such as clay or lead, to bring it to the printing press.

Johannes Gutenberg h2>

In 1447, he started printing prints with moving parts in Europe, a jeweler, printer and publisher. Gutenberg strong> has further developed previously known printing techniques. He prepared the letters and characters one by one. First, your character prepared a pattern of brass or bronze. He poured a lead around the molds to obtain a matrix, and casting an alloy of lead tin and antimony on it. He developed a printing machine at the bottom, with a fixed bed and a screwdriver at the top, moving vertically from the top. In this system, the cliche to be printed was fixed in a metal frame, inked and put on paper.

Peter Schöffer strong> 1475 then started using steel molds instead of soft metal molds. It made it possible to prepare copper stereotypes where the lines could be arranged properly.

In 1790, British William Nicholson began using deeply coated rolls in the inking process. In 1795, Samuel Rust of the United States developed a printing press made of tempered steel and screwed from the top. In 1803, German Friedrich Koenig used the steam power and the gear system to combine the lifting and lowering of the shutter, the forward and backward movement of the bed, and the inking of the stairs with the stairs as a single mechanical action. In 1811, assistant Andreas Bauer took the first steps in developing the rotary printing system by replacing the printing cover with the use of paper wrapped coils.

In 1865, William Bullock of the USA replaced paper sheets It made. Later, he developed automatic folding machines to speed up printing. In the late nineteenth century and the twentieth century there were great developments in printing machinery and printing techniques. In addition to the Tipo printing system, gravure, rotogravure and offset techniques were used. The typewriters that use hot metal by pouring the letters of the letters to be printed were replaced by computerized typewriter machines where very fast optical methods were used.

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