Communication strong> is the name given to the methods of sending and receiving news between two points and the activities in the order of their application. The exchange of messages, information and news between a sender and a receiver.
The purpose of communicating is not only to give or receive information, but to communicate information, feelings and thoughts. Zakat is closely related to the value of information, leading to a movement, a work, a benefit. S.O.S.
The human brain is at the center of the communication. It is the duty of the human brain to communicate, to give a warning, to give a warning to the fire, to give a white mendille surrender, to train the train, to steal the car’s horn. The memory ability of the brain, the functions of sorting information and bringing them back together have enabled the person to follow what has happened around him.
Writing strong> perfection, the paper and inking that were discovered in the Far East and brought to Europe were introduced to the public. has had a significant impact on the
The communication that has started to develop with speech has been and will be a major influence in the evolution of the subjects.
James Watt (1736-1819) In his steam-powered, German-built presses, the Times Newspaper had a remarkable speed in those years , 1100 copies were printed each hour. In 1886, the linotype machines went on the market. At the end of the nineteenth century, a 12-page New York Newspaper had a print speed of 96,000 rotations per hour.
The press and the press made it possible to spread the standard of the written communications and therefore the language, everywhere, from land to sea. As a result, the speed of transmission of printed and printed messages was greatly increased. The period of transmission, which is the time required for messages to reach receivers at the source’s destination, has now depended on the speed limit of transport vehicles. This limit was lifted by the first electrical, then electronic transmission, and the communication was terminated.
With this invention patented in 1837, Morse succeeded in transferring electrical signals representing the letters on a 16-kilometer wire she rode in her workshop. The first commercial telegraph line was established between Washington and Baltimore in 1845.
The first telegraph line in the Ottoman Empire, Sultan Abdülazîz (1958), before the first telegraph line of 3240 km between Europe and the Americas was made (1958), the first telegram taken by Mors on this line was as follows:
As for the second “tele” phone, Alexander Graham Bell strong> was opening a new era in 1876 when it found a telephone. The first commercial telephone was established as a subscriber in the United States, and Siemens built the first dial phone in 1922.
The first telephone machine to my country came in 1879, just three years after the discovery of Bell by Sultan Sultan Abdulhamid Han in 1879, and two years later, In 1881 the first telephone facility was established between Istanbul Post and Telegraph Police and the post office.
The first regular telephone network was established in 1911. In 1914, 9600 lines of Tahtakale, 6400 lines of Beyoğlu and 200 lines of Kadıköy were served. Until 1926, there was no telephone network other than Istanbul. The first intercity call was made between Ankara-Istanbul in 1929 and the first international speech in 1931 between Istanbul and Sofia. While there were 8450 telephone subscribers in 13 countries in 1923 in 1923, the number of subscribers at the end of 1984 was 1.197.000. In our country, 2 phones drop to 100 people, the world average is 8,6. With the new line capacity to be added in 1993, the number of telephone subscribers will reach 10.2 million.
Radio strong> is a common communication medium that removes the special, personal and limited feature of the wire communication. In 1895, Guglielmo Marconi strong> sent his first radio message using the Morse code, after the electromagnetic waves that were the origin of the radio were found by Heinrich Hertz strong>. A similar experiment in the same year was reportedly made in Russia by Aleksandar Popov.
The first news on the radio was the announcement of the presidential election results in the US in 1916.
Photo strong> is a rather old communication tool. However, the “freezing” of the vision lasted about a century. After a century of stagnation, the capture of the motion of the pictures could have been instantaneously transferred from one place to another. First, the silent, then the cinematic, and then the television turned the stillness of the scene into action and gave it a great speed. In the early nineteenth century photography was discovered. In the end of the century, it was a big success for the photograph to enter the life of the press and the press, and then to the cinema life with the movement. It was possible to freeze and hide voices similar to the photo. Thomas strong>
A. Edison strong> found a waxy cylindrical phoenix in 1877. Later, the voices were first optic (sound cinema born), then magnetically stored, revitalized revolve. The effects of cinema and magnetic sound recorders on social life, culture and education still exist.
Communication tools provide the greatest and deepest effective television for people.
The great weapon of our century, television-based, was thrown in 1904 when the first “stranded photo” was sent to Nuremberg from Munich. In less than 20 years, the paintings began to circulate between New York and Philadelphia as a radio. The first facsimile communication started in 1938. Television strong> spread so fast that in 1967 there were 9 TV receivers in 10 households in the US.
Television with audio and video instantaneous magnetic recording and instant replay it seems to be at the peak of communication technology for now. Of course there will be new technological developments that will bring him down to the summit. Because the discoveries and innovations that have been made have led to a tremendous reconnaissance. The new communication, which complement each other and help one another, has almost always competed with each other. After each new meeting, it has been claimed that everything will be upset with this meeting. These allegations have come true to some extent.
Telecommunication regulators strong>: Locomotor instruments used in distant communications or overseas communications.
In 1946, an Englishman named Arthur C. Clarke strong> proposed a communications system around the world in three active communications conforming to be placed in appropriate places in space. John R. Pierce strong> analyzed the first different method of communicating with the satellites from Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1955. If one of these methods was to project the signals from a passive satellite that did not have any electronic devices, then it would use active satellites that would receive, amplify, and transmit signals back to the earth. Today, both cinsten satellites are used.
Passive communications satellites, such as Echo 1 and 2 satellites, have reflective metal surfaces. The signal is transmitted to these satellites from a transmitter station on the ground, reflected from the satellite and the receiver on the ground is amplified in the station. Since the received signals are very weak, very large and very precise receiving stations are needed even to receive a limited amount of signal.
Echo 1 was the first communication satellites to be launched on 12 August 1960, Courier 1B, the first successful launch on October 10, 1960. They are satellites.
With these devices, large quantities of information can be transmitted to the recipient earth stations, which are large enough. Syncom 2, Syncom 3 and Intelsat 1, 2 and 3 are always active satellites. Ekvatordan are orbited at a height of 35,200 km. At this altitude the speed of rotation of the suit is equal to the speed of rotation of the place. For this reason, these satellites are called synchronized satellites. According to an observer on the ground, a synchronized satellite appears still. The first synchronized satellite is the Syncom 2 satellite, which was launched on July 26, 1963.
The world’s first sound transmission via satellite was introduced on December 19, 1958 by US President Eisonhower’s New Year message as a simple signal repeater
Telotar 1: Launched on July 10, 1962. TV signals between the US and Europe. Because he had an orbit at an altitude of 4800 km (because he was not synchronized), he was able to provide a cut-off service. It had to be placed in large numbers for continuous service.
Early Bird (Intelsat 1), the first commercial communications satellite, was launched on the Atlantic on April 6, 1965.
There is a TV channel and 240 phone lines (Submarine cable is 480 channels).
Intelsat 2: There are three satellites. The capacity is Intelsat 1 degree. One is Pacific, the other is Atlantic. Intelsat 3: The series comes from four satellites. There are 4 TV channels and 1200 telephone channels.
The Molniya 1 satellite, which the Soviets launched in 1965, broadcasts TV broadcasts to 30 stations between Moscow and Vladivostok.