Antenna is an electronic circuit element used to spread or trap electromagnetic waves. When antennas are used in conjunction with transmitters, they receive their energy from a frequency adjustable power oscillator. A small part is turned into heat and the rest of the energy consumed is spread by the antenna to the gap. The task of antennas used with receivers is to capture the electromagnetic energy in the cavity and transmit it to the receiving circuit via a transmission line. It was invented in 1906 by the Italian scientist Guglielmo Marconi. After inventing the telegraph, Marconi invented the antenna in order to save him from dependency on the wires.
The transport of information (sound, image, etc.) between long distances is difficult and costly when done with cable. In addition, there are a number of technical problems brought about by the removal and maintenance of long lines. When information is used for electromagnetic waves in work, it is necessary to use these elements with high energy to leave atmospheres (or spaces). Again, it is necessary to transfer the electromagnetic waves propagating in the space to the receiving device after capturing and strengthening the appropriate one at the maximum.
The receiver and transmitter antennas are the same when their physical characteristics are taken. In fact, an antenna can be seen as both a receiver and a transmitter.
The general working principle of antennas concerns the bringing of an electromagnetic field into a field while passing through a beam. The electromagnetic fields brought by two parallel conductors destroy each other’s tees. In order to prevent this situation, the antennas are manufactured with a pair of antennas arranged in a particular way. In terms of electronic characteristics, the antenna is equivalent to a series resonance circuit. In the series resonance circuit, the maximum current passes through the resonance frequency. Too much current means that the electromagnetic field around the antenna is too large.
When the maximum electromagnetic energy is equal to the wavelength of the antenna, it spreads. The antennas used in low frequencies are simpler and easier to construct. However, the size becomes big. The higher the frequency, the smaller the antennas; but it gets complicated and the construction is difficult.