Concrete is a building material that comes into being when materials such as gravel, sand are often combined with a binder such as cement and asphalt. Concrete is a widely used building material. It is used in the construction of roads, buildings, bridges and other structures besides water structures such as dam, canal. It emerges both as a carrier element and as a decorative material. Fire resistance is also preferred in terms of waterproofing and sound insulation. It is also used against nuclear radiation in modern constructions.
Although it is not known exactly who found concrete, concrete has been used in nearly all different forms and in general manure since 5000 years. The ancient Egyptians used clay to build pyramids. The mortar was obtained by heating the limestone and removing the carbon dioxide gas. The resulting lime was used as mortar by mixing with
sand or gravel.
The presence of water-hardening hydraulic cement extends to the Romans. The Romans were mixing lime dough, pozolanic volcanic cup.
The word Pozolan came from the Italian town of Pozzuoli where the material was found. The first patent in this regard was given to James Parker in England at 1796. In 1824, the English bricklayer Joseph Aspdin burned a lime stone kile to obtain a binder, cement. Portland Portland cement was named for its resemblance to limestone. Today the modern portland cement used today is developed aspdin.
Concrete composition h2>
The most important material that forms concrete is cement, which is a binder. Cement binds sand or gravel with chemical reaction with water. Sand or gravel brings about 75% of the concrete to the pitch. It is called coarse and fine depending on grain size. Large or coarse stones can often be obtained by breaking through stone quarries or, of course, as well. The point to note is that
the harmful substances are clean. These harmful substances may be soft granules, clay, soluble salts and organic substances. It can also be obtained by crushing and milling from rocks as well as by sieving of naturally crushed material containing sand, silica or limestone.
Another important material that forms concrete is suds.
Water is usually sufficient.
Cement, sand and some concrete additives other than water can also be mixed. They may be added before or after the addition of water. With additives, the ability to process concrete can increase durability, strength, or delay or accelerate curing. In addition, heat expansion and permeability can be controlled with concrete additives. There are also additives in the concrete that bring in millions of
microscopic air bubbles.
Concrete production h2>
The cement and sand required for the concrete are separated from the cement and sand, which is necessary for the concrete, by separating them from each other by electrically loading the portland cement particles and bringing them to a more homogeneous mixture. industry branches. The final step is the preparation of the mixture and the use of the concrete. Selection of suitable mixing ratios; economics, machinability, strength, durability, and appearance. They vary according to where they are used. For the Kumun situation, many mixing ratio calculation methods are proposed according to the cement type.
Another important factor is the amount of air in the concrete. This amount is about 0.3-3% in the normal bet. These two influences are the two most important factors in the control of the concrete quality. It is also important that the concrete mixture is homogeneously obtained.
Mixing work is carried out with concrete in the construction site. In some special cases the blend can also be made with shovels. Generally, the cement bag, sand weight (or volume seen in some cases) and water are measured in volume, which brings the mixture to the pitch. There are also central establishments that prepare the mix (or sell ready-mixed concrete). In response to the desire to be made here, the ready-to-use, desired quality mix is delivered to the construction site. The mixture may be carried out in stationary mixers or in mobile mixers. This type of central concrete plants benefit from the control of the mix. When appropriate sand and gravel are found, good quality concrete can be obtained easily. The approximate mixing ratio that can be recommended is 1 water, 2 cement, 4 sand and 5 gravel.
The work done after the mixture is obtained homogeneously is to place it.
This can also be done using a car and bucket or pump. The air bubbles contained in the mix can be removed using a vibrator and the concrete can be placed well. In small jobs, swelling can also be applied. Vibration is achieved by rotating an eccentric mass about an axis. This vibration, called vibration, can also be achieved by vibration of the mold as it can be done in concrete.
The last step in obtaining concrete is maintenance and hardening of cast concrete. The hardening portland cement hydration is the result of the chemical reaction with water. In the first days it is important that the humid conditions are maintained for a certain period of time. For this, the outer face of the concrete can be wetted with water, as well as moistened covers. Depending on the type of cement and the temperature, full hydration may be needed for a long period of maintenance. In most cases it is a cage for seven days. Generally, the evaporation of water in the concrete is considered to be the final hardening. It really is not right. Without water there can be neither hydration nor hardening.
The most important features of Concrete Properties are machinability, durability, water impermeability, unit weight, chemical resistance and fire resistance. More Information.