In 1943, the first artificial kidney was developed by Dr. Wilhelm J. Kolff in the Netherlands. Thus, for the first time, a machine took the place of one of the body’s major organs. The blood was passed through this machine instead of the kidney, and in the meantime it was cleared of all the substances that had to be expelled.
Kolff’s machine was suitable for short-term treatment. In 1960, the American scientist Dr. Bolding H.Scribner made a more advanced kidney machine, known as dialysis tool, on which thousands of kidney patients survived.
Dialysis was performed in patients with renal insufficiency in which the excess fluid and waste substances accumulated in the body were transferred to a semi-permeable membrane membrane).
One of the tubes of this machine, which is composed of two tubes, is connected to the artery of the patient’s wrist and the other to the vein of the vagina. There are two pumps in the tube that provide regular flow of blood. The patient’s contaminated blood from the harmful substances is removed from the first tube and purified through the dialysis solution. Afterwards, the blood which has been cleaned is given the other tube again and the dialysis process is completed.
There are two different types of dialysis treatment. Hemodialysis Peritoneal dialysis
The developments in dialysis technology prolonged the life span and then the quality of life was increased in dialysis patients.
To separate liquid-solid mixtures containing too small particles (colloids, particles ranging in diameter from 1 to 100 nm) that can not be separated by centrifugation.
In dialysis, a large-permeable membrane is used in the surface area of the blood, such as cellophane, animal skin, parchment, 1-5 nm in diameter, serving as a filter.
By using a suitable vascular access pathway called catheter, hemodialysis , fistula, graft or catheter, it is possible to pass small molecules through these small holes, The blood taken from the patient is given to the patient by regulating the fluid and solute contents while passing through a filter (artificial kidney) called a dialyzer with the help of a machine and a pump.
Peritoneal dialysis is a thin, soft, silicone-made permanent tube (catheter) that is placed in the patient’s abdominal cavity with a small operation.
This special solution, prepared during peritoneal dialysis, is used for 4 to 6 hours in the abdominal cavity to remove the patient’s blood from the harmful substances using the patient’s own abdomen (peritoneum) the solution is replaced with fresh and clean solution. Throughout this waiting period, the urea in the patient’s blood passes through the body, such as creatine, and the excess fluid that accumulates in the body. Introducing this solution into the abdominal cavity and retrieving it again is done by using gravity rather than through a machine. This type of dialysis is called continuous peritoneal dialysis (CAPD).